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American Society of Limnology and Oceanography
American Society of Limnology and Oceanography comprehensive website incuding job bulletin, publications and more.
Anatomy of Corals
Coral reefs consist of many diverse species of corals. These corals in turn are made up of tiny organisms called polyps. The structure of the polyps and the skeleton of the coral is a rather simple combination. A polyp is made up or two cell layers: the epidermis and the gastrodermis. The non-tissue layer between the gastrodermis and the epidermis is called the mesoglea.
Animals Associated with Coral Reefs
Coral reefs provide habitats for a large variety of organisms. These organisms rely on corals as a source of food and shelter. Some organisms that use corals through mutualism, commensalism and parasitism are within the taxonomic groups Porifera, Polychaeta, Gastropoda, Crustacea, Echinodermata and Pisces. - Click for more information.
Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems
Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems is an international journal dedicated to publishing original papers that relate specifically to freshwater, brackish or marine habitats and encouraging work that spans these ecosystems.
California Marine Life Protection Act
This web site offers you a fast and convenient way to view all the contents of the document Descriptions and Evaluations of Existing California Marine Protected Areas. However, if you would like to view the original document (which is suitable for printing) please click the following link: Descriptions and Evaluations of Existing California Marine Protected Areas
Caribbean Coral Identification
With a little practice and a good waterproof ID chart, identifying these corals will become fun and sometimes challenging. ---
This site discusses the keys to identifying coral.
Categories and Structure of Coral Reefs
There are three basic kinds of coral reefs in the Caribbean: fringing reefs, barrier reefs and atolls. Fringing reefs are coral reefs that grow in shallow waters and border the coast closely or are separated from it by a narrow stretch of water. Fringing reefs consist of several zones that are characterized by their depth, the structure of the reef, and its plant and animal communities. These regions include the reef crest (the part of the reef the waves break over), the fore reef (the region of medium energy), and the spur and groove or buttress zone (the region of coral growth which includes rows of corals with sandy canyons or passages between each row).
Contrasts in Blue
The activities in this lesson encourage students to consider the role of temperature, sunlight, waves, and tides in the creation of unique marine environments. Students will study the dynamics of life in a coral reef and along the rocky coast of Maine.
Coral bleaching is the whitening of coral colonies due to the loss of symbiotic zooxanthellae from the tissues of polyps. This loss exposes the white calcium carbonate skeletons of the coral colony. Corals naturally lose less than 0.1% of their zooxanthellae during processes of regulation and replacement (Brown and Ogden, 1993). - Click for more information.
Four coral conditions have been identified as diseases: white band disease (WBD), black band disease (BBD), bacterial infection, and shut down reaction (Richmond 1993). They are also susceptible to tumors and parasitic worms. These maladies are all stress related, and anthropogenic stresses can increase a coral's susceptibility to these diseases.
Corals can obtain food in a variety of ways. Reef-building corals rely on the photosynthetic products of zooxanthellae for the majority of their nutrients. However, corals also capture zooplankton for food. Corals are suspension feeders.
Corals exhibit sexual and asexual reproduction. The coral colony expands in size by budding. Budding may be intratentacular, in which the new bud forms from the oral discs of the old polyp, as in Diploria, or extratentacular in which the new polyp forms from the base of the old polyp, as in Montastraea cavernosa.
EPA Oceans and Coastal Protection Home
Overview of Ocean and Coastal Protection activities and programs, including coral reefs, marine debris, dredge material management, atmospheric deposition program, and the National Estuary Program.
FISHERIES STOCK ASSESSMENT BIOLOGICAL DATA
Details on marine fisheries stock assesments. Includes detailed marince fisheries statistics.
Go to WhaleNet
Welcome to WhaleNet's interactive educational web site which focuses on whales and marine research. WhaleNet is sponsored by Wheelock College in Boston, Massachusetts with initial support from the National Science Foundation